Nilakantaradhya 3100BC - 2044 Kali Era is the earliest to propagate Srouta Saiva Siddhanta and author of Nilakanta Bhashyam, Geeta Bhashyam, etc.


Dwadasaradhyas means twelve persons, who are fit to be worshipped. They are the teachers of reverence of the Srouta Saiva Siddhanta and are called as the Siddhatriam, the Acharyatriam, the Aradhyatriam and the Panditatriam. These twelve Saivacharyas were born with Sivaamsa in the respective ages to propagate Sivadwaita Siddhanta and Siva Bhakti.

[1] The life history of Sri Nilakantaradhya?

[2] Sarva Vidya Samanvayam in Nilakanta Bhashyam explained in brief?

[3] Tatwatriam i.e. Jeeva, Jagat and Eeswara explained through Nilakanta Bhashyam


The life history of Sri Nilakantaradhya

The Acharya was born in 2044 Kali Era or 3100 BC equivalent to Swabhanu Telugu year, Chaitra month, Sudha Dasami, Pushyami star, Monday, Karkataka Lagna at Srikaleswaram, Warangal in Andhra Pradesh to Gowri and Visweswara, Maheswara Aradhya parents of Bharadwajasa Gotra with the blessings of Sri Kaleswara Swamy with Nilalohita Rudramsa under a boon granted by Lord Siva. This is stated in Nilakanta Vijaya Mahakavyam, written by Nagalinga Sastry garu in Sanskrit as under:

Chatu Chatwadi Rimsa Datta - Sahasra Dwitayamasu

Kalou Varsheshu, Vrutteshu Swabhanu, Subha Vatsare

Maasi Chaitra Valakshye - Pakshe Atha Dasamee Tithou

Pushyamyam, Indu Varecha, Lagne Karkata Kandaye

Gurou Karkat Karasisthite - Kuje Meenam Gatepiva

Meshe Ravou Budhayute - Vrushe Mandayute Kavou

Abhinandya Shrutam Jatam - Sannibham Jata Vedasaa

Gowri Visweswarou Dhanyou - Bhootwa Muda Mavapatu

He was born in Swabhanu Telugu year in Cancer Lagna with Jupitor and Moon there in, Mars in Meena 9th House, Sun and Mercury in 10th house Aries and Saturn and Venus in the 11th House Tarus. When Lord Siva along with Parvathi were holding court in the Hiranya Mantap in Kailash, with Hari, Brahma and other celestial Gods, Narayana requested Siva to send a scholar to propagate Siva Bhakti and to clearly explain the truth in Vyasa Sutrams to the people on the Earth. Siva stated, that since the influence of Maharshi Vighanas and Badari who were sent earlier to propagate Siva Bhakthi is fading away, He is sending Nilalohita Rudra to take birth on Earth to drive away the insanity of the people under the preachings of the Mayavadis and to propagate Srouta Sivaradhya Sampradayam.

It is well known that Parameswara in order to uplift the mankind, from the shackles of births and deaths has presented the Upanishad Sastram. However, as the Upanishads were misinterpreted by some of the commentators or "Darsana Kartas", Badarayana known as the great Veda Vyasa and considered as "Apara Avataram" of Vishnu, under Parameswara's direction has written the Uttara Mimamsa Sastram to give a final decision on the meanings of the Upanishads. In order to understand these sutras in Uttara Mimamsa Sastram easily, Bodhayana Maharshi has written a commentary called "Vritti" thereon. However, as this "Sutra Vritti" written by Bodyana Maharshi was also polluted by some Poorvacharyas, Nilakanta Sivaradhya has written this Nilakanta Bhashyam, projecting the harmony between the Brahma Sutras of Badarayana and Vritti Sutras of Bodhayana Maharshi. This is evident from the following slokas in the preface to Nilakanta Bhashyam.

Vyaasa Sutra Midam Netram, Vidushaam Brahma Darsane

Poorvaihi Kalushitam Neelakantheradhya Prasaadyate

Neelakantho Vivrunute Sree Kanthopa Samahvyayaha

Bodhaayanokti Maalambya, Brahma Sutram Yadhaamati

Sri Appayya Dikshitar in the 16th century has written a commentary to this Nilakanta Bhashyam under the title 'Sivarka Mani Deepika'. However, as Appayya Dikshitar was a "Suddhadwaita Abhimani", his commentary lost its originality and this is evident from his own work 'Sivadwaita Nirnayam'. Sri Appayya Dikshitar introduced certain sentences, which were not there in original Nilakanta Bhashyam and in doing so he appears to present, that Nilakanta's view point is Suddhadwaitam and not Sivadwaitam. This was not enough, as Sri Appayya Dikshitar has removed certain sentences concerning Linga Dharana stated by Nilakanta in the original Bhashyam, which are not to his liking. This fact is evident from the chapters or "Adhikaranams" in the Bhashyam "Mounavad Itareshaam", etc. the slokas projecting Lingadharana found in ancient texts like 'Kriya Saram', etc., which were however not found in the book or the commentary written by Appayya Dikshitar. In course of time, this Nilakanta Bhashyam has gone behind curtain due to Kali Prabhavam, because in Kaliyuga, Saivam is not tasteful and the saying goes - "Kalow Saivamarochakam", till it was presented to Nagalinga Sastry by his guru Sri Srinivasa Siromani of the South, the great grandson of Appayya Dikshitar at the fag end of 19th century.

Therefore, the author Yogi Sri Mudigonda Nagalinga Sastry garu has written this commentary under the title 'Siva Chintamani Prabha' by deleting the slokas on Suddhadwaitam introduced by Appayya Diskhitar and keeping the slokas on Linga Dharana, which were there in the original Nilakanta Bhashyam, following the Nyayam "Yavadaavirudha Manumatam Bhavati", which was published in 1950 and efforts are on to bring this Nilakanta Bhashyam in all the Indian languages for the benefit of the readers. The author wrote an article in the year 1929 on The Antiquity and greatness of the Nilakanta Bhashyam followed by four more articles, which are published by Siva Jnana Lahari in English for the benefit of the readers, under this title, which may be perused for a detailed study.

Sarva Vidya Samanvayam in Nilakanta Bhashyam

Vedas are authentic for the reason they are "Apourusheyams" and above discussion and Tarkam. The Poorva Bhagam or first part of the Vedas speak about "Pasu Putradi Aichika Phala Vishayam" or about living beings in mundane world and the second part or Uttara Bhagam of the Vedas speaks about "Charama Purushardham" or salvation. Since it is very difficult to understand Vedas, Badarayana Maharshi or Vyasa wrote the Sootra Bhashyam. But, since some Matacharyas have written commentaries without following the Vedas in letter and spirit, Bodhayana Maharshi has written "Vritti" or meanings to the Brahma Sutras. Some Matacharyas went on commenting on the Brahma Sutras according to their liking, without even following these "Vrittis" of Bodhayana Maharshi. Deeply concerned by these avaidic state of affairs, Vyasa felt that by the comments of these Matacharyas, the very authenticity of his Brahma Sutras will lose their significance. So, he requested Parameswara, when Neelakanta was born with Parameswara Amsa and written this Nilakanta Bhashyam, as referred earlier, strictly following the Bodhayana "Vritti'. The very first prayer sloka or Mangalacharanam Sloka explains in brief, the gist of the four Adhikaranams or chapters in the Brahma Sutras as under:

Om Namoham Padaarthaaya, Lokaanaam Siddhi Hetavey

Sachidaananda Roopaya Sivaaya Paramaatmane

The four parts of the sloka are (1) Om Namoham Padarthaaya, (2) Lokaanam Siddhi Hetavey, (3) Sachidaananda Roopaya Sivaaya and (4) Paramatmane. The meaning of this prayer sloka projecting the greatness of Nilakanta Bhashyam and that of Srouta Saiva Siddhanta, in unison and without contradiction to any of the Vidyasthanams is briefly explained below.

Kalagni Rudropanishad is ordaining that "Vratametat Pasupatam, Tat Samaacharen Mumukshu Ra Punarbhavaaya", meaning that salvation or Moksham can be obtained only by following Pasapata Vratam. What is Pasupata Vratam? Pasupata Vratam, Siro Vratam, Sambhava Vratam, Linga Dharana Deeksha are all synonymous terms for a person wearing Bhasma, Rudraksha and Linga on the body. For Pasupata Vratam, Ishta, Prana and Bhava Lingas are the core and nucleous. Keeping this in mind, Nilakantaradhya stated in this prayer sloka as under:

(1) Om Namoham Padaarthaaya

The word "OM" an adverb or Avyayam, is Brahma Vachakam. Adharva Sikhopanishad is ordaining "Yaha Punaretam Trimatreno Mityaksharena Param Purusha Mabhidhyaayeeta", meaning that "Parama Purush Siva" has to be worshipped by the three words "Au", "U" and "Um" i.e. OM. Omkaram is Sookshma Panchakshari i.e. Mooolam and Namassivaya is Stoola Panchakshari and this is described in detail in Sivagamas. The meaning of this Atharvana Sikhopanishad mantra is that "Para Brahma Vachaka", by "Trimatra" or three letters word "Omkaram", the inside or "Antaryami" lord or "Sarva Bhoota Guhasaya" or "Bhaava Linga Roopa" Siva has to be worshipped. Further, the Rigveda mantram as well as Swetaswatara mantram is stating as under:

(i) Rutagam Satyam Param Brahma Purusham Krishna Pingalam

Oorthvaretam Viroopaksham Viswaroopaayavey Namo Namaha

- Rigvedam

(ii) Ksharam Pradhaana Mamrutaaksharagam Haraha

Ksharaatmaana Eesate Yantu Sonyaha

Tasyaabhidhyaana Dhyojanaat Tatwa Bhaavaat

Bhooyaaschaantey Viswa Maaya Nivruttihi

- Swetaswataram 1-10

The words Para, Purusha, Amruta and Akshara occurring in Upanishads are determined as Siva Vachakams or speaking of Siva only. Atharva Siropanishad, raising the question as to what is Omkaram "Atha Kasmaat Uchate Omkaraha?" - answers, "Yasmaad Sakrud Uchaaryam Maana Aeva Praaana Oordhva Mutkraamayati, Tasmaad Uchyate Omkaraha", meaning that by uttering only once, One Who can take away the Pranas up, is called "Omkaram" and this is stated in the first part of the prayer sloka by Nilakantaradhya. "Aham Padaarthaaya" Padam is used here to mean "Sakthi Visista Sivaadwaita Brahma", i.e. Sakti with Siva. "Aham" actually speaks of "Jeeva", however this word is used here to convey "Paramatma", who is "Sarva Jeevantaryami" that is Brahman. HE is above the entire Universe consisting of "Annamaya, Pranamaya Anandamaya Kosams", etc. is explained in detail in Nilakanta Bhashyam in fourth chapter, fourth paada "Jagat Vyaapaaradhikaranam". The "Ista Linganu Sandhanam" or wearing Siva Linga on the body is projected herein by these details conveying the "Annamaya Sthoola Sareeram" and this aspect of wearing Istalinga on the body is ordained by the Sruti Vakyam "Isha Moorjam Tapasaa Niyachata".

(2) Lokaanam Siddhi Hetavey

This adjective word is used here to mean that Parameswara is the root cause for granting whatever the "Ista, Prana, Bhava Lingopasaka" desires to enjoy or see in all the Chaturdasa Bhuvanams or Lokams or worlds. This adjective is pointing out that a "Mukta Purush", if he desires to see his ancestors in "Pitrulokam", he can see or visit them by Parameswara's grace as stated in the Sruti Vakyam "Adha Sa Yadi Pitroloka Kamo Bhavati, Sadya Aevasya Pitaraha Samuchishtante". Again Swetaswatara mantra says "Jusha Sthataste Na Amrutatwa Meti", meaning that by getting Parameswara's grace only the Jeeva gets Amrutatwam or Sivatwam and the same view is projected by Puranas as well, as Upabrihnam, in the Sivapurana Sloka "Sivaajna Prerito Gachet Gartam Vaa Swabhram Meva" and this truth is inserted in the prayer sloka by the Bhashyakara Nilakanta as "Lokaanaam Siddhi Hetavey".

(3) Sachidaananda Roopaya

This adjective is projecting the great qualities of the Absolute Brahman, Parameswara praised as such in Kaivalyopanishad, etc. as "Vibhum, Chidaananda Maroopa Madbhutam". He is to be concentrated upon or get connection with i.e. "Anusandhanam".

Sivaaya - Till now, we find in the Prayer Sloka Parameswara's gunas or great qualities are described as (i) "Ishta Prana Bhava Linga roopatwam", (ii) "Sakti Visistwam", (iii) "Ista Prapti Hetutwam" and (iv) "Sachidananda Roopatwam" and now Nilakanta introduces in this prayer sloka Parameswara as Upasya or the One Who has to be worshippeed, naming Him as Siva. Skanda Purana, Sivatatwa Sudhanidhi is stating as under:

Vidyaa Susruti Rutkrushta, Rudraikadasani Srutou

Tatra Panchakshara, Statra Siva Ityakshara Dwayam

Naamnosti Yaavatee Saktihi, Paapa Niraharane Dwijaha

Taavat Paapaani Kartrumvai Saktaha, Kovaa Kalou Yugeh!

Sivatatwa Sudhanidhi says that among all the Vidyasthanams, Vedas are great and among Vedas, Satarudreeyam called as "Namakam" is greater and in the "Namakam", "Panchakshari" i.e. "Namasivaya" is greatest and in that "Panchakshari Mantra", the two letters "Si" and "Va" are far more greatest one over the other. The "Mahima" or efficacy or the greatness of Siva Namams or Siva's names in driving away all Papas or sins is stated eloberately in an unending way in the Srutis. Therefore, Panchakshari mantra as well as the two letters word "Siva" are most powerful in this Kaliyuga. Therefore the mere hearing of the names of Siva alone will drive away the sins is indicated by the word "Sivaaya" in the prayer sloka. Further the Atharva Sikhopanishad states "Siva Aeko Dhyeyaha, Sivankaraha, Sarva Manyat Parityajya", meaning that Siva alone has to be worshipped again and again rejecting all others pointing out that there is no other way to get salvation, except by worshipping Siva in Linga Roopam.

(4) Paramatmane

This word in the prayer sloka is indicating the Paramatma seated in the heart of the Mumukshu i.e his "Hrudaya Pundareekam" eulogized in the Vedas as "Tasya Sikhaaya Madhye Paramaatmaa Vyavasthitaaha", who should be worshipped in Bhava Linga Roopam.


The important points to be understood from this prayer sloka are that the four adjectives (i) Om, (ii) Aham Padaarthaya, (iii) Lokaanam Siddhi Hetavey and (iv) Sachidananda Roopaya are projecting the important aspects contained in the Siddhanta stated in the four chapters of the Brahma Sutras, through Nilakanta Bhashyam.

Further "Sakala Vedanta Vakya Samanvayam" or interpretation of what is stated in all the scriptures in unison and without contradiction with any of the Vidyasthanams is projected clearly in "OMKARA PADA VACHYA, SIVA".

(i) If it is accepted that Parameswara is "Adwiteeya" i.e. no second person existing along with Him, the statement affects "Dwaita Srutis".

(ii) On the otherhand, if it is accepted that a second person is existing, the statement affects "Adwaita Srutis".

Therefore, by projecting that "Sakti Visista Parameswara" is "Adwaiteeya", this statement containing "Antarganika Bhedam" i.e. inside difference is not prohibited in any of the Srutis and therefore not affecting the Dwaita or Adwaita Srutis. Since the concept of the Jeeva is introduced by the Swetaswatara Sruti Mantra (1-9) "Jna Jnow Dwa Vaja Veesa Neesou", etc. and the concept of "Jagat" is introduced by the Eesavasyopanishad mantra, "Eesavasya Midagam Sarvam, Yat Kincha Jagatyaam Jagat", there is no conflict between the Dwaita and Adwaita Srutis. This truth is projected by the adjective "Aham Padaarthaya", which is discussed in detail in "Dwitteeyadhyayam" or second part of the Brahma Sutras.

Again those who are realising the presence of the Absolute Brahman, Paramatma in Ishta, Prana, Bhava Linga Roopam are described or referred to by the word "Loka". By stating that Siva alone is "Moksha Pradata", who can grant salvation, because He is "Pancha Krutya Parayana" i.e. having power to perform five deeds namely "Srusti" i.e., creation, "Sthiti" i.e., protection, "Layam" i.e., destruction, "Tirodhanam" i.e.. dis-appearance and "Anugraham" i.e. grace or granting boons.

The aspect of Upasana by performing which alone salvation could be obtained is indicated in the third chapter of the Brahma Sutras through Nilakanta Bhashyam.

Again the Sruti vakyams - (i) Brahmavid Brahmaiva Bhavati, (ii) Niranjanam Paramam Samya Mupaiti and (iii) Jushta Tatasthena Amrutatwameti, speak eloquently that those who performed Brahmopasana alone are eligible for the grace of that Absolute Brahman or Brahmanugraham and he alone gets Parama Samyam and not by others. These Sruti vakyams point out that mere Brahma Jnanam is not enough to get salvation, as claimed by the Adwaitins and this aspect is stated by Nilakantaradhya by the adjective "Sachidananda Roopaya", which is discussed in the Nilakanta Bhashyam in the fourth chapter of the Brahma Sutras.

In this way,

(i) by stating that the word "OM", which is Brahma vachakam is projecting the root cause of this Universe or "Jagatkaranam" is Brahman i.e., Siva, "Anvadi Karana Vadam" is rejected.

(ii) by introducing the adjective "Aham Padarthaya", which is projecting the "Sakti Visista Sivadwaita Siddhantam", "Nirvisesha Vadam" is rejected.

(iii) by stating that Parameswara alone can grant to the Upasaka salvation or Moksham, which is the "Upasana Phalam", "Kevala Karma Vadam" is rejected.

(iv) by stating that Brahman is "Sachidananda Roopam", "Soonya Vdam" is rejected.

(v) by referring the Brahman as Sivaya, "Pancharatra Vadam" is rejected.

It is hoped that the seekers of truth, the world over read, think over and understand the Sarva Vidya Samanvayam contained in this Nilakanta Bhashyam and get benefited, says the author.

Tatwatriam i.e. Jeeva, Jagat and Eeswara explained according to Nilakanta Bhashyam

This short discussion on the greatness of the Srouta Saiva Siddhanta in explaining Jagat, Jeeva and Eeswara in the most authentic and correct manner, is meant for the benefit of the readers, to study and appreciate the Neelakanta Bhashyam in a detailed fashion.

Bhruguvalli recited daily by all scholars, states as under:

Yatova Imani Bhootani Jayante Yenajatani Jeevanti,

Yatprayam, Tyabhi sam Visamti Tadwidgam Jijnasasva, Tadhyeti

- Bhruguvalli

This Bhruguvalli mantra is establishing the fact that, the person responsible for creation, sustenance and destruction i.e. Srushti, Sthiti, Laya Karta is Brahman.

Chandamsi Yajnah Krutavo Vratani Bhootam,

Bhavyam Yachaveda Vadanti

Asmanmayee Srujate Viswameta

Tasmischranyo Mayaya Sannirudraschanyo

Maayaantu Prakrutim Vindyaat Mayinantu Maheswaram

Tasyavayava Bhootestu Vyasam, Sarvamidam, Jagat

- Swetaswataram

These two Swetaswatara mantras are establishing that Maheswara i.e. Siva is Sruti Karta by whose grace this Universe exists and is expanding.

Brahmai Vedamamrutam Purastaat,

Brahma Paschat Brahma Dakshinataschottarecha,

Atha Oorthwancha Prastutam Brahma Vedam,

Viswamidam Varishtam

- Mundakopanishad

This Mundakopanishad mantra is establishing the fact, that Brahma tatwam i.e. Brahman is encircling this Viswam or Universe on all the six sides East, West, South, North, up and below. This Universe or Jagat exists like a child in the mother's womb and like the creatures in an ocean emphasizing that - Idam Viswam, Brahmova i.e. this Universe is Brahman. Just like the leaves, branches and the trunk put together are totally expressed as the tree, similarly Jeeva, Jagat and Siva put together is expressed as Brahman. So, these three Jeeva, Jagat and Brahman are equally real existing or Nitya Satyam and not "Midhya". Brahman is not encircling the Midhya Jagat. Eesavasyopanishad, the first of the Ten Upanishads, for which Adi Sankaracharya wrote commentary says emphatically that Eswara, the Brahman surrounds the entire Universe, Eesavasya Midagam Sarvam. The claim that "Brahma Satyam and Jagat Midhya" cannot be accepted. The Jagath is as much Satyam as the Brahman. The Mundakopanishad Sruti mantra confirms this view.

Shaktih Sivascha, Sachabda Prakruti Pratyayoditou

Tou Brahmasamarasyena, Samasta Jagadatmakau

- Siva Puranam

This Siva Purana Vayu Samhita vachanam says, that Brahman means, Sakti and Siva together and Sakti means Jeeva and Jagat together in other words Viswam. Just as there is no difference or incongruity, in stating that parts of the flower which itself is part of the tree, are also part of the tree, similarly the Jeeva in the three "Avasthas" namely - Jagradavastha, Swapnavastha, Sushuptavastha, who is called as Vaiswanara, Taijasa, Prajna is also part of the Brahman, the omnipotent Ultimate Reality. To understand the meaning of this sloka i.e. "Slokardham" it is necessary to know the three "Avasthas" or States in which the human being or Jeeva passes through- (i) while he is wide awake observing all the visible things around, it is called as Jagradavastha at the body level, (ii) while he is dreaming about the things it is called as Swapnavastha at the mind level and (iii) while he is concentrating on the things in a serene and peaceful state of mind, at the intelligence level, it is called as Sushuptavastha. In these three Avasthas, the Jeeva is called as Vaiswanara, Taijasa and Prajna as stated above. Still these nomeneclatures refer to the Jeeva only and since Jeeva is part of the Brahman, these three parts are part of the Brahman only. However while Vaiswanara is referred as Prathamapadah, Taijasa is referred as Dwiteeyapadah and Prajna is referred to as the Truteeyapadah, Brahman is not referred to as Chaturthapadah but only as Chaturthah i.e. the fourth in the Mundakopanishad mantra cited above. What is the reason? The reason is explained below quoting first Swetaswataropanishad mantra.

Vaalaagra Satabhagasya, Satatha Kalpitasyacha

Bhagojeevah Savijneyah Sachanantyaya Kalpate

- Swetaswataram

This Swetaswataropanishad mantra says that the size of Jeeva is equivalent to one-hundredth part of one-hundredth part of a paddy thorn. In such state the Jeeva has no organs i.e. Niravaya. He should become Saavayava i.e. get organs, and then only he becomes a karta to perform actions. So a Jeeva with organs totally developed alone gets Kartrutwam and not a Jeeva without organs. Therefore to enjoy the fruits of all actions Karmacharanam i.e. performing Karma or action is necessary and to perform Karma, Sareeram or body is necessary. Even if a body is there without organs, the Jeeva cannot perform Karma. This body is not created by him or by his parents. Then who is the source for this body?

Annamvai Prajapatih Tatohavai, Tadwetah

Tasmadimah Prajah Prajayante

- Prasnopanishad

This Prasnopanishad mantra says that the food eaten and digested by Parents becomes "Suklam" in man and "Sonitam" in woman, with Rasa, Rakta, Mamsa, Medo Asthi Majja Sukraroopam. This conjoined dot of Suklam and Sonitam is the root cause for the formation of the body without organs.

Pramaan Retah Sinchati Yoshitayam

Bahvee Prajah Purusha Tsamprasootah

- Mundakopanishad

This Mundakopanishad mantra says that after the physical union of the man and his wife, which is the consummation of marriage, the suklam and sonitam conjoin together in the woman's womb and after completion of nine months comes out in the shape of a baby and this Mundakopanishad mantra says as under:

Atah Samudra Girayascha Sarvey Tsyandate Sindhavah Sarvaroopah

Atascha Sarva Oshadhayo Rasascha Yenesha Bhootastishtate Hyantaratma

  • Mundakopanishad
  • This mantra says the food and water taken by man and woman is transforming into Suklam and Sonitam in them and these are absolutely necessary for their sustenance and the Brahman creates all these "Oshadhis" and water.

    The next stage is the creation or Srusti. The body of a human being consists of two parts - one is the Jeeva or Aatma the other is the body or Sareeram. How this Jeeva enters after the body is ready in the mother's womb, is explained below in Chandogyopanishad and Mundakopanishads:

    Sadeva Somyeda Magra Aaseet, Aeka Aeva Dwiteeyam

  • Chandogyopanishad
  • Tadakshaita Vahasyaam Prajaaye Yeti, Tatou Tejosrujata

    Tattej Deekshata Bahusyaam Prajaaye yeti

    Tadapo Srujata -- Tamannam Srujanta

    - Mundakopanishad

    There was Brahma tatwam alone in the beginning, Brahman, by His "Sankalpam" created Tejobannam i.e. Agni, Jala, Pruthvi

    Aetasma Jwayate Pranomanah Sarvendriyanicha

    Kham Vayurjyotiraapah Pruthivee, Viswasya Dharini

    Parameswara i.e. Brahman then created Jeeva, Manas, Sarvendriyas, Aakash, Vayu, Agni, Jala, Pruthvi i.e. Jevas, mind, all organs, cosmos, air, fire, water and earth. While Mundakopanishad is stating of the five elements, Chandogyam is speaking of three elements only for the simple reason that for body making i.e. Sareera Nirmanam Tejobannams i.e. fire, water and earth only are necessary. However in Chandogyopanishad also the theory of five elements alone is mentioned.

    Tasminma Vatsampat Mushitwa Atheta Mevathva

    Nam Punarnivartate Yatheta Makash, Makashadvayum

    Vayurbhootva Dhoomo Bhavati, Dhoomo Bhootva Bhram Bhavati

    The Jeeva after experiencing the Karma Phalam or the fruit of his actions in heaven and hell returns to the earth in the shape of air and cosmos. So, there is no discrepancy between the two Upanishads.

    Chandogyopanishad classifies three types of bodies,

    Teshaam Khalve Teshaam Bhootanam Treenyeva Beejani

    Bhavam Tyandajam, Jeevaja Mudbijyamiti

    - Chandogyam

    viz., Andajam, Jeevajam, Udbijam i.e. bodies formed from out of (i) eggs like birds, serpents, etc., (ii) out of human or animal bodies like human beings, animals, etc., (iii) out of seeds sprouting from the earth like trees, etc.

    So, from "Tejobannams" Agni, Jala, Pruthvi or the three elements fire, water and earth, the above three types of bodies or sareerams are created and in the space left out in the bodies coming out of eggs i.e. Andajam and human or animal bodies i.e. Jeevajam the other two elements air and cosmos are filled in. This is only Sthoola Srushti and the above quoted Mundakopanishad mantra says that mind all sense organs i.e. Twakchakshuh Srotra, Jihwa, Prana, Vak, Padapo Yupasta are fitted in their respective places in the body and Jeeva cannot enter this body himself because it is Nir Avayava at this stage, Parameswara or Brahman steps in and introduces or inserts the Jeeva into his body. The story does not end here. Jeeva now fully equipped with the body has to perform the stipulated Karmas or actions and try to reach the Brahman. This is called Sayujyam. Without the body, Jeeva has no Kartrutwam or capacity to perform the stipulated Karmas. Body is the tool for performing "Karma". Though Jeeva entered the body still Jeeva has no Kartrutwam himself, because he is a Nir Avayava i.e. himself not possessing any organs. So, Brahman steps in at this stage. So, Anenaiva Jeeve, Natmanaanu Pravisya, Nama Rupe Vyakaranot, Parameswara or the Brahman steps in at this stage along with the Jeeva and enters the body and remains as a witness to all actions done by the Jeeva. The two parts of the body namely the Sthoola Sareeram i.e. the body and the Sookshma Sareeram i.e. the Jeeva are both Jadam meaning cannot act by themselves and therefore, Parameswara entered the body. This is called in Vedantic parlance as "Anupravesam" and is the "Driving force" or Antaryami behind all his sense organs i.e. Jnanendriyam and Karmendriyam. This is explained in Antaryami Brahmanam as under:

    Pranetishtan, Yovachi Tishtan Yah

    Srukshusi Tishtan, Yosrotre Tishtan

    Yomanasi Tishtan Yasvachi Tishtan, Yo Vijnane Tishtan

    Brahman is present in the body as life or Pranam, as source of expression or Vak in Karmendriyam, as skin, eyes and ears in Jnanendriyam in the mind and the Jeeva as Antaryami and that is why the Kenopanishad also states similarly as under:

    (i) Keneshitam Patati Preshitam Manah?

    Kena Prana Pradhamah Preti Yuktah?

    Keneshitam Vachmimam Vadanti?

    Chakshuh Srotram Kudevo Unakti?

    - Kenopanishad

    (ii) Srotasya Kshetram Manasomano

    Yadvachoha, Vachagam, Supranasya Pranah

    Chakshushaschakshu Ratimuchya Dheeraah

    Pretyasmaalloka Damruta Bhavanti

    - Kenopanishad

    The mind, life or Pranam, Vak or speech, eyes and ears are all Jadam and have no Kartrutwam or independence by themselves and hence the first mantra above raises doubts and questions as to how they got the capability and the second mantra answers them by saying that Parameswara is behind them as Antaryami and giving them the respective capabilities and appointing them in the respective duties. So, the Nirvahana Karta or the person for getting the things done is Parameswara and the Phalabhokta or the person to enjoy the fruits there of, is the Jeeva. That is why Mundakopanishad says as under:

    Dwasuparnaa Sayuja Sakhaya Samaanam Vruksham Parishsva Jaate

    Tayorekah Pippalagam Pvadviti Anasrajanyo Abhichaka Sreehi

    - Mundakopanishad

    This Mundakopanishad mantra says that both Jeeva and Eeswara are present in the body. While the Jeeva is experiencing the Karma Phalam or the fruit of all his actions, Parameswara is there only as a mute witness just like the mother feeding the child, Prameswara is looking after the Jeeva. Just like the mother not experiencing the agonies of the child, Parameswara has no connection whatsoever over the Karma Phalam or the fruit of all actions of the Jeeva. So, the claim of the Adwaitins that Jeevo Brahmaiva Naa Parah also fails. Jeeva is as much Satyam as Brahman. In fact, this claim of Adwaitins is not found in any of the Upanishads.

    Taitteereeya, Brahmavalli, 6th canto says - Tatsrudva, Tadevaanu Prasavit meaning that Parameswara after creating the bodies entered the created bodies Himself along with the Jeeva. Parameswara has created the Panchabhootams i.e. five elements, Manas i.e. mind, all organs and keeping them in their respective places Himself entering therein i.e. the Jeeva and the organs as Antaryami or inside Lord, bestowing power of vision to the eyes, power of determination to the Jeeva getting things done but giving the fruits of all actions done by the Jeeva to him alone thereby conferring Bhoktrutwam to the Jeeva i.e. as the person experiencing the results of all his actions, himself only. Inspite of all this, what is the necessity for Parameswara to enter the body along with the Jeeva i.e. Anupravesam which the Srutiis are saying:

    (i) Angushta Maatrah Purusho Antaratma

    (ii) Sada Jananam Hrudaye Sannivishtah

    (iii) Rudro Jananam Hrudaye Sannivishtah

    These Srutis are saying that the Omni present Brahman, Purush, Rudra i.e. Siva is present in the heart of the human beings as Antaratma of the size of a thumb.

    The reason is that for all creation, the ultimate necessity or the end point is Sayujyam i.e. Mukti or Moksham or Salvation. So, the reasons for Siva to enter the body along with the Jeeva are two fold. One is to give Kartrutwam to the Jeeva and the second is to grant Sayujyam ultimately. That is why, in the course of the Gayatri Mantra after offering of the sacred waters it is stated as under:

    Asaavadityo Brahma, Om Ityekaksharam Brahma, Agnir

    Devata, Brahma Ityarsha, Gayatram Chandhah

    Paramatmam Swarupam, Sayujyam Viniyogah

    - Gayatri mantra

    This mantra says that this Sun God is Brahman, the omnipotent OM, is Brahman and the application or the end purpose of this exercise of worshipping Gayatri is to attain Sayujyam. By Gayatri mantra, Siva alone is worshipped.

    The Brahma Sutra Bhogamatra Samyalingacha states that the Mukta Purush shares all enjoyments with Brahman. In Saiva Siddhanta, Jeeva, Jagat and Eeswara are all permanent or Nitya Satyatwam and a Mukta Purush enjoys all happiness in the company of Siva i.e. Sayujyam, except Srusti Kartrutwam which the Jeeva is not asking. Jeeva Brahmaikyam is not the essence of the Vedas. The author Mudigonda Nagalinga Sastry garu has written a book itself on "Moksha Swaroopa Nirnayam" i.e. the form of Salvation stated in the Vedas discussed separately, which is also translated into English and published by Siva Jnana Lahari.

    Yadanadyah Syandamanah Samudre

    Astam Gachanti Nama Rupe Vihaya

    Tadha Vidvannamamapa Dvimuktah

    Paratparam Purusha Mupeti Divyam

    - Mundakopanishad

    This Mundakopanishad mantra is stating in unambiguous terms that just as the rivers flowing from their place of birth discarding their name and identity join the sea, similarly the Upasaka experiencing all pleasures and pains in his travel through life becoming ultimately dispassionate by performing Upasana joins the Purush i.e. Hardra Brahmam without return to earthly life again. Imam Naa Vartante Naa Vartante says Chandogyopanishad.

    Prasnopanishad is also stating similarly as under:

    Sayadhe Manadyah Syandamanah Samudrayanaah

    Samudram Prapyastam Gachanti Bhidyate Tasam Namarupe

    Samudra Ityevam Prochyate Aevame Vasya Paridrashtru Rimah

    Shodasha Kalah Purushayanaah Purushax Pratyastam

    Gachanti Bhidyate chasam Namarupe, Purusha Ityevam

    Prochyate Sa Aeshokalo Amruto Bhavati

    - Prasnopanishad

    Just as the rivers joining the sea are not returning back similarly the Upasaka or the seeker of Brahman is not returning back to this earthly life. This state of not returning back to this earth is in Vedantic parlance called as Aikyam by Adwaitins or Sayujyam by Saivites. However, "Jeeva Brahmaikyam" is not the essence of the Vedas as claimed by the Adwaitins. This is explained by the author in his book Moksha Swaroopa Nirnayam, translated into English and published separately by Siva Janan Lahari, which may be referred to for a detailed study. So Jeeva and Eswara are together in the heart of the human beings but the Jeeva is unaware of this. Unless, the Jeeva comes to know of this fact subjectively, he cannot get rid of the worldly bonds. That is why, the Swetaswataropanishad mantra says as under:

    Yadaacharma Vadaakaasam Veshta Yishyanti Maanavaah

    Tadasivam Vijnaya Dukhah Syanto Bhavishyati

  • Swetaswataram
  • This mantra says that by Sivopasana alone one gets relieved of the worldly pains and gets eternal bliss and not otherwise. The word Siva, in this mantra is changed into Deva in some prints wherein non-saivites wrote commentaries.

    A correct interpretation and understanding of the Upanishad mantras and particularly Swetaswataropanishad is possible only through Srouta Saiva Siddhanta and not otherwise. Swetaswataropanishad mantras say -

    (i) Sarvaanana Siro Greevaha Sarva Bhoota Guhaasayaha

    Sarva Vyapeecha Bhagawan, Tasmaat Sarva Gatah Sivaha (3-11)

  • Swetaswataram
  • (ii) Sarvaajeeve, Sarva Sasthe Bruhante,

    Asmin Hamso Bhrasyate Brahmachakre

    Pudhgatmanam Preritarancha Matva

    Jushtasta Tastena Amrutatvameti

  • Swetaswataram
  • The first Swetaswatara mantra quoted above says that Siva is present everywhere and the second mantra is further emphasising the fact, that unless Jeeva realises that Eeswara is different from him and surrenders to Him absolutely, performs Upasana and gets His grace, he cannot get relieved of his worldly bonds and get Amrutatwam i.e. Moksham. This is discussed in detail in the author's book "Sroutamevahi Dharanam Lingasya". Again, the following Sruti mantras call upon the seeker to do Sivopasana.

    (i) Jnatwa Sivam Santamatyanta Meti

  • Swetaswataram
  • This Swetaswatara mantra says that by knowing Siva only one gets peace.

    (ii) Triyambakam Yajamahe Sugandhim Pushtivardhanam

    Oorvarikamiva Bandhanat Mrutyormuksheeya Mamrutat

    - Rudradhyayam, Yajurvedam

    This Triambaka mantra in Yajur Vedam is very clear that by worshipping Siva alone one gets rid of worldly bonds just like a cucumber gets separated painlessly from the creeper and gets Moksha.

    (iii) Vratameta Tpasupatam, Tatsamacharet, Mumuksharna Punarbhavaya

    - Kalagni Rudropanishad

    This Kalagni Rudropanishad mantra ordains that unless the seeker of salvation takes upon himself Pasupata Vratam i.e. wearing Bhasma, Rudraksha and Siva Linga on the body and worships Siva in Linga roopa, he cannot get Mukti or Moksham.

    (iv) Dhyayeeteshan, Pradhyayitavyam, Sarvamidam Brahma Vishnurudra Yindreda Ssanprasuyante, Sarvani Cheyindriyani Sahabhootairnakaranam Karananandhata, Dyata, Karanantudhyeya, Ssarvaisvarya Sampasah Ssarvaisvarah Ssambhurakasamadhye, Siva Aeka Dyeyah Ssivankarah Sarvamanyat Parityajya Ssamaptaa Adharvasikha

    - Adharva Sikhopanishad

    This Adharva Sikha mantra says that Siva alone has to be worshipped to the exclusion of all other Gods, because, birth is stated for Brahma the creator, Vishnu the protector, Rudra the destroyer, Indra and all other celestial Gods. Siva is above the eternal trinity i.e. Brahma, Vishnu, Maheswara called as Tureeya Sthanam or the fourth one, referred to in the Upanishads as Sivamadwitam Chaturdhamanyante.

    It will be thus seen that "Sarvavidya Samanvayam" meaning interpretation of what is stated in the Vedas, etc. in unison and without contradiction to any of the fourteen Vidyasthanams is only possible through Srouta Saiva Siddhanta stated in the Nilakanta Bhashyam.

    "Hinduism is a way of life, a life in which one can reach God identified as Siva, the Ultimate Reality, Eswara, the Brahman, eulogised in Vedas and Upanishads as such and on which lies the greatness of India i.e. Bharata Khandam for generations to come."
    (Let all people, the world over live in peace and happiness, rolling in wealth with full of piety and compassion towards fellow beings is the motto of this great Hindu way of life)

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